Heterocyclic Amine Formation in Grilled Chicken Depending on Body Parts and Treatment Conditions

Molecules. 2020 Mar 28;25(7):1547. doi: 10.3390/molecules25071547.


Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) carcinogenicity is known since the 1970's, but the exact way of their formation is still unclear. During these examinations different body parts (breast filet with and without skin, thigh filet without skin and full wing with skin) of chickens from the same Ross 308 strain were analyzed after grilling with the combination of 3-3 temperature and duration levels (150-180-210 °C and 2.5-5-10 min per side). Five different kinds of heterocyclic amines (HAR, NOR, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP) were detected by HLPC-MS/MS. The results obtained from the present study confirm that, in general, the higher the temperature and longer the duration of the grilling the more HCAs will be generated. Grilling of chicken thigh without bones and skin resulted in lower amounts of HCAs generated in comparison to the grilling of chicken breast without skin. The presence of skin on the chicken breast increased the amounts of HCAs formed, especially if grilling was performed at high temperature for longer duration, especially at 210 °C for 10 min. In case of grilling the chicken wings, the amounts of HCAs formed were lower than observed in the breast.

Keywords: 4,8-DiMeIQx; HAR; MeIQx; NOR; PhIP; carcinogenicity; chicken meat; heterocyclic amines.

MeSH terms

  • Amines / analysis*
  • Animals
  • Carcinogens / analysis*
  • Chickens
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Cooking
  • Food Analysis*
  • Heterocyclic Compounds / analysis*
  • Meat / analysis*
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Amines
  • Carcinogens
  • Heterocyclic Compounds