Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is the most common glomerulopathy in childhood characterised by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and edema. Most of the patients have mild and transient edema but those with difficult to treat nephrotic syndrome can develop severe edema which may have serious consequences such as immobility, cellulitis and peritonitis. Understanding of the pathophysiology of edema is still evolving with recent research elucidating newer mechanism of sodium retention through plasmin mediated epithelial sodium channel activation in collecting duct. Patients with mild edema do not require specific diuretic therapy as it improves with steroid induced diuresis. In this review, the authors describe the current perspective in management of moderate to severe edema in childhood nephrotic syndrome including various parameters to assess intravascular volume status which is important for planning overall treatment strategy. Then they briefly discuss about various classes of diuretics, aquaretics and evidence based use of furosemide albumin combination therapy for treatment of edema. Management strategy for a small proportion of patients, who are unresponsive to furosemide therapy, includes diuretic synergism, intravenous furosemide albumin combination therapy and continuous intravenous furosemide infusion.
Keywords: Albumin; Aquaretics; Diuretics; Furosemide; Nephrosis.