Aortitis and periaortitis are inflammatory diseases of the aorta and its main branches; they differ in the extension of inflammation, which is confined to the aortic wall in aortitis, and spreads to the periaortic space in periaortitis. Aortitis is classified as non-infectious or infectious. Non-infectious aortitis represents a common feature of large-vessel vasculitides but can also be isolated or associated with other rheumatologic conditions. Periaortitis can be idiopathic or secondary to a wide array of etiologies such as drugs, infections, malignancies, and other proliferative diseases. Notably, both aortitis and periaortitis may arise in the context of IgG4-related disease, a recently characterised fibro-inflammatory systemic disease. Prompt recognition, correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential in order to avoid life-threatening complications.
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