Deep Learning Approaches for Detecting Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease Patients through On-Body Acceleration Sensors

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Mar 29;20(7):1895. doi: 10.3390/s20071895.


Freezing of gait (FOG) is one of the most incapacitating motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). The occurrence of FOG reduces the patients' quality of live and leads to falls. FOG assessment has usually been made through questionnaires, however, this method can be subjective and could not provide an accurate representation of the severity of this symptom. The use of sensor-based systems can provide accurate and objective information to track the symptoms' evolution to optimize PD management and treatments. Several authors have proposed specific methods based on wearables and the analysis of inertial signals to detect FOG in laboratory conditions, however, its performance is usually lower when being used at patients' homes. This study presents a new approach based on a recurrent neural network (RNN) and a single waist-worn triaxial accelerometer to enhance the FOG detection performance to be used in real home-environments. Also, several machine and deep learning approaches for FOG detection are evaluated using a leave-one-subject-out (LOSO) cross-validation. Results show that modeling spectral information of adjacent windows through an RNN can bring a significant improvement in the performance of FOG detection without increasing the length of the analysis window (required to using it as a cue-system).

Keywords: IMU; LSTM; accelerometer; consecutive windows; convolutional neural networks; denoising autoencoder; spectral representation; time distributed.

MeSH terms

  • Accelerometry / methods
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biosensing Techniques*
  • Deep Learning
  • Female
  • Gait / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Physiologic*
  • Parkinson Disease / diagnosis*
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Wearable Electronic Devices