Determining the Influencing Factors of Biogas Technology Adoption Intention in Pakistan: The Moderating Role of Social Media

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 30;17(7):2311. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17072311.


Environmental degradation and rapid climate change have forced researchers and practitioners to find sustainable practices to save the world. Increasing energy demand is not only consuming scarce natural resources, but also damaging the climate and overall ecosystem. In this regard, biogas technology is beneficial in two ways-by meeting the energy demand and saving natural resources. Pakistan is an agricultural country and has a high potential for producing energy through biogas technology. Therefore, this study aims to find farmers' intentions of adopting biogas technology in Pakistan by employing the extended norm activation model. Furthermore, the moderating role of social media was explored. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from farmers and results were extracted by using Partial least square structural equation modelling software. The results suggest that awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, environmental concern and perceived consumer effectiveness positively and significantly influence personal norms of the farmers. Consequently, personal norms affect farmers' intentions of adopting biogas technology in Pakistan. The moderating role of social media was also confirmed by the results. This study considers the notable insights of biogas technology adoption in Pakistan. Finally, the limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Pakistan; biogas technology; norm activation model; renewable energy; social media.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Agriculture / methods*
  • Animals
  • Biofuels*
  • Cattle
  • Ecosystem
  • Farmers*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intention*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pakistan
  • Social Media*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Biofuels