This paper presents the results of a comparative biosocial study between 186 patients with large bowel cancer and two groups of matched controls, each with 186 persons. One of these groups was from hospitalized patients, the other from the neighbourhood of the cancer patients. Bowel cancer patients and their controls were compared with regard to level of education, profession, physical activity in job, smoking habits, alcohol and coffee consumption and previous illnesses. The only parameters that were statistically different between cancer patients and both controls were haemorrhoids and use of laxatives, that were found to be increased in the cancer group. Higher education level, coffee consumption, polyposis, appendectomia were significantly more presented in bowel cancer patients but only in comparison to one control group. Out of the other diseases of the digestive tract, cases and controls differed with respect to cholecystitis, cholecystectomy and to diabetes.