Monoclonal antibodies are widely used as diagnostic reagents and for therapeutic purposes, and their demand is increasing extensively. To produce these proteins in sufficient quantities for commercial use, it is necessary to raise the output by scaling up the production processes. This review describes recent trends in high-density cell culture systems established for monoclonal antibody production that are excellent methods to scale up from the lab-scale cell culture. Among the reactors, hollow fiber bioreactors contribute to a major part of high-density cell culture as they can provide a tremendous amount of surface area in a small volume for cell growth. As an alternative to hollow fiber reactors, a novel disposable bioreactor has been developed, which consists of a polymer-based supermacroporous material, cryogel, as a matrix for cell growth. Packed bed systems and disposable wave bioreactors have also been introduced for high cell density culture. These developments in high-density cell culture systems have led to the monoclonal antibody production in an economically favourable manner and made monoclonal antibodies one of the dominant therapeutic and diagnostic proteins in biopharmaceutical industry.
Keywords: Monoclonal antibodies; cryogel bioreactor; fixed and fluidized bed bioreactors; high density bioreactors; hollow fiber bioreactors; miniPERM or CELLine cell culture devices; wave bioreactor.