Background and aims: The prevalence of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in developed countries is up to 30% of the general population, and 50% of patients present type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Fibrosis is the most important prognostic factor in NAFLD. The aim of this study was to search evidence for an early diagnosis of liver fibrosis in subjects with DM2 and to evaluate potential risk and protective factors.
Methods: This study was conducted among 160 diabetic patients with NAFLD proven biopsy. Anthropometric assessments, laboratory test, liver histological features and follow-up of a Mediterranean diet were evaluated.
Results: Diabetic patients with liver fibrosis showed a greater number of positive metabolic criteria than diabetic patients without liver fibrosis. Patients with hepatic fibrosis have a lower score on the PREDIMED test (9.0 (2.4) vs. 6.2 (2.3); p < 0.05). Diabetic patients with liver fibrosis showed higher glucose levels (delta: 10.1 (4.5) mg/dl), fasting insulin levels (delta: 3.1 (1.5) UI/L), HOMA-IR (delta: 2.1 (0.3) units) and HbA1c (delta: 0.6 (0.2)%). Non-invasive tests showed a higher score (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score and fibrosis-4) in liver fibrosis subjects than no liver fibrosis subjects. A logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, gender, HbA1c and body mass index showed independent significant direct association between liver fibrosis and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance as indicator of insulin resistance (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53: 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.2; p = 0.026) and inverse association with PREDIMED score as an indicator of adherence to Mediterranean diet (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8; p = 0.01).
Conclusion: In patients with DM2, insulin resistance is an independent risk factor associated with liver fibrosis, and the adherence of a Mediterranean diet is a protective factor associated with absence of liver fibrosis.
Keywords: Fibrosis; Liver biopsy; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.