Background: Dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase MET by various mechanisms occurs in 3%-4% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is associated with unfavorable prognosis. While MET is a validated drug target in lung cancer, the best biomarker strategy for the enrichment of a susceptible patient population still remains to be defined. Towards this end we analyze here primary data from a phase I dose expansion study of the MET inhibitor capmatinib in patients with advanced MET-dysregulated NSCLC.
Patients and methods: Eligible patients [≥18 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2] with MET-dysregulated advanced NSCLC, defined as either (i) MET status by immunohistochemistry (MET IHC) 2+ or 3+ or H-score ≥150, or MET/centromere ratio ≥2.0 or gene copy number (GCN) ≥5, or (ii) epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type (EGFRwt) and centrally assessed MET IHC 3+, received capmatinib at the recommended dose of 400 mg (tablets) or 600 mg (capsules) b.i.d. The primary objective was to determine safety and tolerability; the key secondary objective was to explore antitumor activity. The exploratory end point was the correlation of clinical activity with different biomarker formats.
Results: Of 55 patients with advanced MET-dysregulated NSCLC, 40/55 (73%) had received two or more prior systemic therapies. All patients discontinued treatment, primarily due to disease progression (69.1%). The median treatment duration was 10.4 weeks. The overall response rate per RECIST was 20% (95% confidence interval, 10.4-33.0). In patients with MET GCN ≥6 (n = 15), the overall response rate by both the investigator and central assessments was 47%. The median progression-free survival per investigator for patients with MET GCN ≥6 was 9.3 months (95% confidence interval, 3.8-11.9). Tumor responses were observed in all four patients with METex14. The most common toxicities were nausea (42%), peripheral edema (33%), and vomiting (31%).
Conclusions: MET GCN ≥6 and/or METex14 are suited to predict clinical activity of capmatinib in patients with NSCLC (NCT01324479).
Keywords: MET amplification; MET exon 14; MET mutation; NSCLC; capmatinib.
Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.