Serum and urine biomarkers for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer

Urol Oncol. 2021 Oct;39(10):686-690. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.02.018. Epub 2020 Mar 30.


Since the "prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era," we have seen an increase in unnecessary biopsies, which has ultimately lead to an overtreatment of low-risk cancers. Given the limitations of prostate-specific antigen and the invasive nature of prostate biopsy several serum and urinary biomarkers have been developed. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the available biomarkers for the detection clinically significant prostate cancer namely PHI, 4Kscore, PCA3, MiPS, SelectMDx, ExosomeDX. Current literature suggests that these biomarkers can improve detection of clinically significant prostate cancer reducing overtreatment and making treatment strategies more cost-effective. Nevertheless, large prospective studies with head-to-head-comparisons of the available biomarkers are necessary to fully assess the potential of incorporating biomarkers in routine clinical practice.

Keywords: Clinically significant cancer; Prostate cancer; Serum biomarkers; Urine biomarkers.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


  • Biomarkers, Tumor