Advanced ADC Histogram, Perfusion, and Permeability Metrics Show an Association with Survival and Pseudoprogression in Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2020 Apr;41(4):718-724. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6499. Epub 2020 Apr 2.


Background and purpose: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is a lethal childhood brain cancer with dismal prognosis and MR imaging is the primary methodology used for diagnosis and monitoring. Our aim was to determine whether advanced diffusion, perfusion, and permeability MR imaging metrics predict survival and pseudoprogression in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

Materials and methods: A clinical trial using the poly (adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor veliparib concurrently with radiation therapy, followed by maintenance therapy with veliparib + temozolomide, in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma was conducted by the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium. Standard MR imaging, DWI, dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion, and DSC perfusion were performed at baseline and approximately every 2 months throughout treatment. ADC histogram metrics of T2-weighted FLAIR and enhancing tumor volume, dynamic contrast-enhanced permeability metrics for enhancing tumors, and tumor relative CBV from DSC perfusion MR imaging were calculated. Baseline values, post-radiation therapy changes, and longitudinal trends for all metrics were evaluated for associations with survival and pseudoprogression.

Results: Fifty children were evaluable for survival analyses. Higher baseline relative CBV was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P = .02, Q = 0.089) and overall survival (P = .006, Q = 0.055). Associations of higher baseline mean transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extravascular extracellular space with shorter progression-free survival (P = .03, Q = 0.105) and overall survival (P = .03, Q = 0.102) trended toward significance. An increase in relative CBV with time was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P < .001, Q < 0.001) and overall survival (P = .004, Q = 0.043). Associations of longitudinal mean extravascular extracellular volume fraction with progression-free survival (P = .03, Q = 0.104) and overall survival (P = .03, Q = 0.105) and maximum transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extravascular extracellular space with progression-free survival (P = .03, Q = 0.102) trended toward significance. Greater increases with time were associated with worse outcomes. True radiologic progression showed greater post-radiation therapy decreases in mode_ADC_FLAIR compared with pseudoprogression (means, -268.15 versus -26.11, P = .01.) CONCLUSIONS: ADC histogram, perfusion, and permeability MR imaging metrics in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma are useful in predicting survival and pseudoprogression.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Algorithms
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Benchmarking
  • Benzimidazoles / administration & dosage
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms / mortality
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy
  • Chemoradiotherapy / methods
  • Child
  • Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma / diagnostic imaging*
  • Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma / mortality
  • Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma / therapy
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / standards
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Male
  • Neuroimaging / methods*
  • Neuroimaging / standards*
  • Perfusion Imaging / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Temozolomide / administration & dosage


  • Benzimidazoles
  • veliparib
  • Temozolomide