Testicular Disorder of Sexual Development With Cryptorchidism, Penile Hypoplasia and Hypospadias in a Giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis Giraffa)

J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2020 Mar 26;91(0):e1-e6. doi: 10.4102/jsava.v91i0.1971.


Disorders of sexual development (DSD) in wild mammals are rarely described. A male South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) was identified with bilateral cryptorchidism. The testes were intra-abdominal, smaller and less ovoid than in normal male giraffes. The right testis was situated more cranially than the left and connected to a longer deferent duct with normal ampullae. One distended vesicular gland filled with mucoid material was identified. A short penis, situated in the perineal area, was directed caudally and presented hypospadias. Histologically, testicular hypoplasia was present; the epididymis tubules contained no spermatozoa and the deferent duct and vesicular gland were inflamed. The blood testosterone concentration was 16.27 nmol/L and oestrone sulphate concentration was 0.03 ng/mL. The aetiology of the abnormalities is unknown.

Keywords: Giraffa camelopardalis; cryptorchidism; disorder of sexual development; hypospadias; penile abnormality.