Homozygous Splice Site Mutation in ZP1 Causes Familial Oocyte Maturation Defect

Genes (Basel). 2020 Apr 1;11(4):382. doi: 10.3390/genes11040382.


In vitro fertilization (IVF) involves controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using hormones to produce large numbers of oocytes. The success of IVF is tightly linked to the availability of mature oocytes. In most cases, about 70% to 80% of the oocytes are mature at the time of retrieval, however, in rare instances, all of them may be immature, implying that they were not able to reach the metaphase II (MII) stage. The failure to obtain any mature oocytes, despite a well conducted ovarian stimulation in repeated cycles is a very rare cause of primary female infertility, for which the underlying suspected genetic factors are still largely unknown. In this study, we present the whole exome sequencing analysis of a consanguineous Turkish family comprising three sisters with a recurrent oocyte maturation defect. Analysis of the data reveals a homozygous splice site mutation (c.1775-3C>A) in the zona pellucida glycoprotein 1 (ZP1) gene. Minigene experiments show that the mutation causes the retention of the intron 11 sequence between exon 11 and exon 12, resulting in a frameshift and the likely production of a truncated protein.

Keywords: female infertility; immature oocytes; oocyte maturation defect.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques / methods*
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Oocytes / metabolism
  • Oocytes / pathology*
  • Oogenesis / genetics*
  • Ovulation Induction
  • Pedigree
  • RNA Splice Sites / genetics*
  • Zona Pellucida Glycoproteins / genetics*


  • RNA Splice Sites
  • ZP1 protein, human
  • Zona Pellucida Glycoproteins