Arterial Endofibrosis in Endurance Athletes: Prospective Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Intra-Arterial Digital Subtraction Angiography and Computed Tomography Angiography

Diagn Interv Imaging. Jul-Aug 2020;101(7-8):463-471. doi: 10.1016/j.diii.2020.03.003. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Abstract

Purpose: To prospectively compare the diagnostic capabilities of computed tomography angiography (CTA) to those of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in endurance athletes with suspicion of arterial endofibrosis.

Materials and methods: Forty-five athletes (39 men, 6 women; median age: 30 years, interquartile range: 23-42 years) prospectively underwent DSA and CTA without (n=5) or with (n=40) electrocardiogram gating. DSA was interpreted by a single expert (experience of 15 years). CTA was independently interpreted by three other readers (experience of 5-8 years). Readers assessed the presence and degree of stenoses on iliac and femoral arteries and the overall diagnosis (negative, uncertain, positive) of endofibrosis at the limb level. Sensitivities and specificities of DSA and CTA were estimated at the limb level using histological findings and long-term follow-up as reference, and compared using the McNemar test.

Results: For diagnosing and quantifying stenoses, concordance between DSA and CTA was moderate-to-good for common and external iliac arteries, moderate for lateral circumflex arteries and poor-to-moderate for the other branches of the deep femoral artery. It was good for all readers for the overall diagnosis of endofibrosis. After long-term follow-up (median, 95 months; interquartile range: 7-109 months), DSA sensitivity and specificity were respectively 88.6% (39/44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 76-95%) and 75% (24/32; 95% CI: 57.9-86.7%); CTA sensitivity and specificity were respectively 88.6% (39/44; 95% CI: 76-95%; P>0.99) and 84.4% (27/32; 95% CI: 68.2-93.1%; P=0.51), 86.3% (38/44; 95% CI: 73.3-93.6%; P>0.99) and 75% (24/32; 95% CI: 57.9-86.7%; P>0.99), and 84.1% (37/44; 95% CI: 70.6-92.1%; P=0.68) and 75% (24/32; 95% CI: 57.9-86.7%; P>0.99) for the three readers.

Conclusion: CTA shows performances similar to those of DSA in predicting the long-term diagnosis of endofibrosis in endurance athletes with suggestive symptoms.

Keywords: Athletes; Athletic injuries; Computed tomography angiography; Digital subtraction angiography; Iliac arteries.