Mechanochemical activation with cyclodextrins followed by compaction as an effective approach to improving dissolution of rutin

Int J Pharm. 2020 May 15;581:119294. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119294. Epub 2020 Apr 2.


Rutin is one of the most important flavonoids with poor bioavailability. This work aimed at addressing the issue of poor biopharmaceutical performance of rutin by applying a combination of complexation with secondary processing into tablets. Mechanical activation was the most suitable method of rutin complex formation with (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), while the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex successfully formed by kneading with an ethanol/water mixture. Complexation was confirmed by thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. Dynamic vapour sorption showed that stability of powders at high humidity conditions was satisfactory, however, the β-CD complex retained around 8% of moisture. The complexes were compacted with or without tricalcium phosphate (TRI-CAFOS) filler at a range of compression pressures (19-113 MPa). The best tabletability was determined for rutin/HP-β-CD, compressibility for the TRI-CAFOS blends with complexes and compactibility for the rutin/HP-β-CD + TRI-CAFOS mix. Dissolution studies showed quicker and more complete dissolution (pH 1.2) of rutin/HP-β-CD tablets, however the compacts comprising the filler were superior than pure complexes. The tablets manufactured in this study appear to be promising delivery systems of rutin and it is recommended to combine rutin/HP-β-CD with TRI-CAFOS and compact at 38-76 MPa.

Keywords: Compaction; Cyclodextrin; Dissolution; Mechanochemistry; Rutin; Solid state; Tricalcium phosphate.

MeSH terms

  • Biological Availability
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods*
  • Compressive Strength*
  • Cyclodextrins / chemical synthesis*
  • Cyclodextrins / metabolism
  • Drug Compounding / methods
  • Rutin / chemical synthesis*
  • Rutin / metabolism
  • Solubility
  • X-Ray Diffraction / methods


  • Cyclodextrins
  • Rutin