Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Adiponectin, and PPAR-γ Gene Expression in Broiler Chicks Fed Diets Supplemented With Fat and Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract

Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2020 Jul;72:106440. doi: 10.1016/j.domaniend.2020.106440. Epub 2020 Jan 24.


Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ secreting several adipokines, especially adiponectin, that play an important role in regulating insulin function in the body of mammals. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the association between abdominal fat deposit, insulin resistance, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and adiponectin gene (AG) expression in broiler chicks fed diets high in unsaturated fat supplemented with green tea extract (GTE). A total of 300 one-day-old female Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to 6 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of two levels of GTE (0 and 500 mg/kg diet) × three levels of fat inclusion [without fat (control group), soybean oil (SO), and tallow (Ta)]. Each treatment was replicated five times. At the end of the experiment (day 49), two chicks from each replicate weighing an average of pen weight were bled and then slaughtered for further analysis. Abdominal fat percentage, fasting concentration of blood glucose, triglyceride and insulin, glycogen reserves of breast and liver tissues, and PPAR-γ and AG expression were determined. The insulin resistance index of the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) was calculated using the fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The highest abdominal fat percentage and the lowest carcass yield were obtained in chicks fed SO-supplemented diet (P < 0.05). Chicks fed diet supplemented with SO showed the highest PPAR-γ gene expression (P < 0.05). SO-rich diets suppressed AG expression in chickens' abdominal fat tissue, and the birds fed with SO-supplemented diet showed a significant decrease in AG expression compared with the control (P < 0.05). Chicks fed diet supplemented with SO showed lower QUICKI and breast glycogen reserve compared with the control group (P < 0.05). A significant increase in blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed SO-supplemented diets (P < 0.05). AG and PPAR-γ expression increased and decreased by GTE, respectively. QUICKI tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in GTE-supplemented chicks; however, the effect of GTE supplementation on carcass yield, abdominal fat percentage, and blood insulin and glucose concentration was not significant. The findings of this study showed that SO-rich diets via increased PPAR-γ gene expression and decreased AG expression in abdominal fat may lead to insulin resistance in female broiler chicks.

Keywords: Adiponectin and PPAR-γ gene expression; Broiler chickens; Dietary fat source; Green tea extract; Insulin sensitivity.