Background: Cardiovascular and liver disease are main causes of death in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PWH). In HIV-uninfected patients, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with incident metabolic complications. We investigated the effect of NAFLD on development of metabolic comorbid conditions in PWH.
Methods: We included PWH undergoing a screening program for NAFLD using transient elastography. NAFLD was defined as a controlled attenuation parameter ≥248 dB/m with exclusion of other liver diseases. Incident diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease were investigated using survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards.
Results: The study included 485 HIV-monoinfected patients. During a median follow-up of 40.1 months (interquartile range, 26.5-50.7 months), patients with NAFLD had higher incidences of diabetes (4.74 [95% confidence interval, 3.09-7.27] vs 0.87 [.42-1.83] per 100 person-years) and dyslipidemia (8.16 [5.42-12.27] vs 3.99 [2.67-5.95] per 100 person-years) than those without NAFLD. With multivariable analysis, NAFLD was an independent predictor of diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.13; 95% confidence interval, 2.14-12.31) and dyslipidemia (2.35; 1.34-4.14) development.
Conclusions: HIV-monoinfected patients with NAFLD are at higher risk of incident diabetes and dyslipidemia. Early referral strategies and timely management of metabolic risk may improve outcomes.
Keywords: controlled attenuation parameter; diabetes; dyslipidemia; liver fibrosis; transient elastography.
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