Prevalence, subtypes, and correlates of nocturia in the symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network cohort

Neurourol Urodyn. 2020 Apr;39(4):1098-1107. doi: 10.1002/nau.24338. Epub 2020 Apr 6.


Aims: We determined the prevalence, severity, and correlates of nocturia in a large clinical cohort of patients.

Methods: Patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) completed 3-day bladder diaries. Nocturia was quantified based on the mean number of nighttime voids documented over the 3 days. Nocturia subtypes (global polyuria, nocturnal polyuria [NP], reduced global bladder capacity, and reduced nocturnal bladder capacity) were assessed. Bother due to nocturia was measured by the LUTS Tool. Sleep quality was assessed with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Sleep Scale. Multivariable multinomial regression was used to explore patient characteristics associated with nocturia.

Results: In 502 participants with analyzable diaries (285 men and 217 women), the mean number of nocturia episodes over 3 days was 0 in 103 (20.5%), >0 to <1 in 151 (20.1%), 1 to <2 in 165 (32.9%), and ≥2 in 83 (16.5%). Sixty-seven percent of the participants with nocturia ≥1 reported significant bother from their nocturia. NP was the most common nocturia subtype and was present in 17% of those with nocturia = 0, 40% of those with nocturia >0 to <1, 65% of those with nocturia 1 to <2%, and 77% with nocturia 2+. Higher degrees of nocturia were associated with male sex, greater sleep disturbance, and a higher likelihood of exhibiting multiple nocturia subtypes.

Conclusions: Nocturia ≥1 occurred in 49% of LUTS patients and caused significant bother in the majority of them. The most common subtype was NP, but a substantial proportion of patients exhibited additional characteristics.

Keywords: bladder diary; bother; nocturnal polyuria; sleep; voiding diary.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / diagnosis
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / epidemiology*
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nocturia / diagnosis
  • Nocturia / epidemiology*
  • Nocturia / physiopathology
  • Polyuria / diagnosis
  • Polyuria / epidemiology*
  • Polyuria / physiopathology
  • Prevalence
  • Urinary Bladder / physiopathology*