Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with long-term cardiovascular morbidity and is highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objectives of this scoping review were to determine the prevalence of OSA inpatients hospitalized for CVD and to map the range of in-hospital outcomes associated with OSA.
Methods: We searched MEDLINE(R), Embase, and Cochrane Databases for articles published from 1946-2018. We included studies involving non-surgical adults with OSA or at high risk of OSA who were hospitalized for CVD. The outcomes were considered as in-hospital if they were collected from admission up to 30 days post-discharge from hospital.
Results: After the screening of 4642 articles, 26 studies were included for qualitative synthesis. Eligible studies included patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (n = 19), congestive heart failure (n = 6), or any cardiovascular disease (n = 1). The pooled prevalence of OSA in cardiac inpatients was 48% (95% CI: 42-53). The in-hospital outcomes reported were mortality (n = 4), length of stay (n = 8), left ventricular ejection fraction (n = 8), peak troponin (n = 7), peak B-type natriuretic peptide (n = 4), and composite cardiovascular complications (n = 2).
Conclusions: OSA is highly prevalent in the cardiac inpatient population. The outcomes reported included mortality, cardiac function, cardiac biomarkers, and resource utilization. There are significant knowledge gaps regarding the effect of treatment and OSA severity on these outcomes. The findings from this review serve to inform further areas of research on the management of OSA among patients with CVD.
Keywords: acute coronary syndromes; cardiovascular disease; congestive heart failure; hospital outcomes; obstructive sleep apnea; sleep disordered breathing.