Psychometric Validation and Reference Norms for the European Spanish Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire: DCDQ-ES

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr 2;17(7):2425. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17072425.


The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) is a widely used and well-validated tool that contributes to the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The aim of this study was to further analyze the psychometric properties of the European Spanish cross-culturally adapted version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-ES) in a sample of Spanish children aged 6-11 years and to establish reference norms with respect to age groups. Parents of 540 typically developing children completed the DCDQ-ES. A second sample of 30 children with probable DCD (pDCD) was used to test its discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original three-factor structure and the internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.907). Significant differences between age groups were found. The pDCD group scored significantly lower than the reference sample in the three subscales and DCDQ-ES total score (p < 0.001; AUC = 0.872). The DCDQ-ES is a reliable and valid tool for screening motor coordination difficulties in Spanish children and for identifying children with probable DCD. The findings of this research suggest that context-specific cut-off scores should be systematically utilized when using cross-cultural adaptations of the DCDQ. Age-specific cut-off scores for Spanish children are provided.

Keywords: developmental coordination disorder; developmental coordination disorder questionnaire; parental questionnaire; reliability; screening; validity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motor Skills Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Psychometrics
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires