Associations Between Changes in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Weight Change in Japanese Adults

Eur J Nutr. 2020 Apr 6. doi: 10.1007/s00394-020-02236-x. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Fruits and vegetables may induce greater satiety, reduce hunger, decrease energy intake, and modulate energy metabolism, thereby playing a role in weight loss.

Objective: To determine the associations between changes in fruit and vegetable consumption and weight change over a 5-year interval in Japanese adults.

Methods: This cohort study included 54,015 subjects (54.6% female, mean age 56.5 years) of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study who had no known history of major chronic diseases at baseline. Data on fruit and vegetable consumption were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Body weight was self-reported. We used multivariable linear mixed-effects regression models to examine the associations between changes in fruit and vegetable consumption and change in body weight.

Results: On average, body weight decreased by 25 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 3, 47] for every 100 g/d increase in total vegetable consumption. Change in fruit consumption was nonlinearly associated with weight change. Fruit consumption was directly associated with weight change among subjects who increased consumption (70 g; 95% CI, 39, 101) but was not associated with weight change among subjects who reduced or did not change fruit consumption. These associations did not vary by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The association with vegetables was restricted to yellow/red vegetables (- 74 g; 95% CI, - 129, - 18) and allium vegetables (- 129 g; 95% CI, - 231, - 28). Lower-fiber vegetables were inversely associated with weight change, whereas lower-fiber fruits or higher-energy fruits were directly associated with weight change beyond 0 g/d change in consumption.

Conclusions: Change in vegetable consumption was inversely associated with weight change while fruit consumption was positively associated with weight change among subjects who increased consumption. The influence of fruits and vegetables on weight change may depend on the characteristics of the fruits and vegetables.

Keywords: Fruits; Japanese; Obesity; Vegetables; Weight.