Congenital Cytomegalovirus and Hearing Loss

J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2020 May;49(3):293-304. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2020.02.005. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Abstract

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common cause of nongenetic, sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disorders in newborns, infants, and children. Current cCMV screening procedures for pregnant women and newborns are not standardized, which may be attributed to the lack of knowledge about the consequences of infection among clinicians and the general public and the lack of effective treatments. The purpose of this article is to provide a review and update on cCMV infection epidemiology, diagnostic tests, clinical manifestations, prevention, treatment, and nursing implications. Hearing loss is emphasized because this is a common sequela of cCMV infection for which diagnostic modalities and treatments are available.

Keywords: congenital abnormalities; congenital cytomegalovirus infection; congenital infection; cytomegalovirus vaccine; health education; sensorineural hearing loss.

MeSH terms

  • Cytomegalovirus / pathogenicity
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications*
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / congenital*
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Hearing Loss / epidemiology
  • Hearing Loss / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Neonatal Screening / methods
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence