The association of blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and red blood cell (RBC) count with arterial stiffness is not well-defined. Herein, we examined the associations of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and augmentation index (AI) with Hb level and RBC count from a population cohort in and around Beijing, China. A total of 3994 participants (57.1 ± 8.8 years old) were included in our analysis. Blood routine examination, baPWV, and possible covariates were examined. The mean Hb, RBC count, AI corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIP75), and baPWV were 131.4 ± 17.1 g/l, 4.2 ± 0.5 1012/l, 80.2 ± 12.0%, and 1665.3 ± 377.1 cm/s, respectively, consistent with previously described cohorts. RBC counts and Hb levels were positively associated with baPWV (β for 1012/l RBC: 50.08 cm/s, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.54-69.63, p < 0.001; β for 10 g/l Hb: 9.05 cm/s, 95% CI: 3.35-14.76, p = 0.002) and AIP75 (β for 1012/l RBC: 1.33%, 95% CI: 0.55-2.12, p < 0.001; β for 10 g/l Hb: 0.34%, 95% CI: 0.12-0.57, p = 0.003), despite adjustment for covariates. The average levels of baPWV in the third-fourth quartile RBC groups were higher than in the first quartile (Q1) group (p < 0.001 for all). The average levels of baPWV in the fourth quartile Hb groups were higher than in the Q1 Hb group (p = 0.038). Mean AIP75 levels in the third-fourth RBC and Hb groups were higher than in the Q1 groups (p < 0.05 for all). In conclusion, circulating blood Hb levels and RBC counts are positively associated with arterial stiffness in our community-based study.