Evaluating the Causal Role of Gut Microbiota in Type 1 Diabetes and Its Possible Pathogenic Mechanisms

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Mar 24;11:125. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00125. eCollection 2020.


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease mediated by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, the emergence of high-throughput sequencing has allowed us to investigate the role of gut microbiota in the development of T1D. Significant changes in the composition of gut microbiome, also termed dysbiosis, have been found in subjects with clinical or preclinical T1D. However, whether the dysbiosis is a cause or an effect of the disease remains unclear. Currently, increasing evidence has supported a causal link between intestine microflora and T1D development. The current review will focus on recent research regarding the associations between intestine microbiome and T1D progression with an intention to evaluate the causality. We will also discuss the possible mechanisms by which imbalanced gut microbiota leads to the development of T1D.

Keywords: causality; dysbiosis; gut microbiota; mechanisms; type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / pathology*
  • Dysbiosis / complications*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immune System / immunology*
  • Immune System / microbiology