How Can Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Cause Hyperprogression in Solid Tumors?

Front Immunol. 2020 Mar 20;11:492. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00492. eCollection 2020.


Following the administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors, an unexpected pattern of response designated as hyperprogression may be observed in certain patients. This paradoxical response corresponds to an acceleration in tumor growth and a dramatic decrease of patient survival. The reported incidence rates of hyperprogressive disease are highly variable, ranging between 4 and 29%. In this review, we have performed a literature search on hyperprogressive disease, including both retrospective studies and case reports, and discuss potential predictive biomarkers as well as potential mechanisms associated with immune-checkpoint inhibitor associated hyperprogression.

Keywords: hyperprogressive disease; immune checkpoint inhibitors; predictive factors; solid tumor; tumor growth.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Disease Progression
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / diagnosis
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Immunotherapy / adverse effects
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Prevalence


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors