Survival Status and Predictors of Mortality Among Colorectal Cancer Patients in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Retrospective Followup Study

J Cancer Prev. 2020 Mar 30;25(1):38-47. doi: 10.15430/JCP.2020.25.1.38.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest cancer types that has a great public health impact both in developed and developing countries. However, in Ethiopia, the survival status of colorectal cancer patients was not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the survival status and predictors of mortality among colorectal cancer patients in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2019. The institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted with 621 subjects who were selected from patients registered between January 1, 2013 and December 30, 2017 with follow-up until December 30th, 2018. Data were collected from patient record review charts. A Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test, and bivariate and multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model were used. Of the 621 colorectal cancer patients who were included in the analysis, 202 (32.5%) died. The overall mortality rate was 20.3% per year (95% CI: 17.7-23.3). The overall survival was 18.1% with median survival time of 34.8 months (95% CI: 30.4-36.8). Comorbidity (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5); stage (II [AHR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.3-11.1], III [AHR = 8.0, 95% CI: 2.8-23.3], IV [AHR = 17.6, 95% CI: 6.1-50.7]); smoking (AHR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3); alcohol consumption (AHR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.07-2.2); age ≥ 70 (AHR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.02-2.9); and marital status (married [AHR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5-3.8], widowed [AHR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6], divorced [AHR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7]) were significant predictors of colorectal cancer mortality. It is crucial to implement early detection and screening, giving priority to rural dweller, comorbid patients and advanced stage diagnosed patients.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Ethiopia; Mortality; Survival.