An adrenal incidentaloma is now established as a common endocrine diagnosis that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. The majority of patients can be reassured and discharged, but a personalized approach based upon image analysis, endocrine workup, and clinical symptoms and signs are required in every case. Adrenocortical carcinoma remains a real concern but is restricted to <2% of all cases. Functional adrenal incidentaloma lesions are commoner (but still probably <10% of total) and the greatest challenge remains the diagnosis and optimum management of autonomous cortisol secretion. Modern-day surgery has improved outcomes and novel radiological and urinary biomarkers will improve early detection and patient stratification in future years to come.
Keywords: adrenal adenoma; adrenal computed tomography; adrenal cortical carcinoma; adrenal incidentaloma; autonomous cortisol secretion.
© Endocrine Society 2020.