Identification and Quantitation of Amylase Trypsin Inhibitors Across Cultivars Representing the Diversity of Bread Wheat

J Proteome Res. 2020 May 1;19(5):2136-2148. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00059. Epub 2020 Apr 22.


α-Amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) may have a role in nonceliac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) and celiac disease (CD), but the ATI content and diversity across a range of wheat cultivars are not well characterized. Discovery proteomics was used to detect ATIs across two wheat cultivars: Chara and Magenta. Comprehensive mapping of detected ATIs with the ATIs from the recently published wheat genome RefSeq v1.0 shows the presence of three major subclasses: monomeric (9%), dimeric (61%), and chloroform-methanol (CM) type (30%). Subsequently, the level of 18 ATI isoforms (63 peptides) grouped into four subtypes was monitored across 15 commercial wheat cultivars and the eight parental lines from a multiparent advanced-generation intercross (MAGIC) population using liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS). The ATI content of wheat cultivars Janz, Sunvale, Diamond Bird, and Longreach Scout was significantly lower than that of other wheat cultivars. The MAGIC parental cultivars Baxter and Xiaoyan 54 contain higher levels (∼115% relative to the average wheat ATI content), whereas cultivar Pastor contained the lowest levels (∼87%). Comprehensive sequence analysis, annotation, chromosomal locations, and epitope mapping enabled us to build an LC-MRM-MS method to monitor and quantify the immunostimulatory ATI proteins potentially related to NCWS, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic disorders. This provides an opportunity to select wheat cultivars with significantly lower levels of ATIs.

Keywords: LC−MRM-MS; amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs); cereal; nonceliac wheat sensitivity (NCWS); proteomics; wheat.

MeSH terms

  • Amylases*
  • Bread
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Plant Proteins / analysis
  • Trypsin
  • Trypsin Inhibitors* / analysis
  • Trypsin Inhibitors* / metabolism


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Plant Proteins
  • Trypsin Inhibitors
  • Amylases
  • Trypsin