Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment for COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): A case series

J Thromb Haemost. 2020 Jul;18(7):1752-1755. doi: 10.1111/jth.14828. Epub 2020 May 11.

Abstract

A prothrombotic coagulopathy is commonly found in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A unique feature of COVID-19 respiratory failure is a relatively preserved lung compliance and high Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, with pathology reports consistently demonstrating diffuse pulmonary microthrombi on autopsy, all consistent with a vascular occlusive etiology of respiratory failure rather than the more classic findings of low-compliance in ARDS. The COVID-19 pandemic is overwhelming the world's medical care capacity with unprecedented needs for mechanical ventilators and high rates of mortality once patients progress to needing mechanical ventilation, and in many environments including in parts of the United States the medical capacity is being exhausted. Fibrinolytic therapy has previously been used in a Phase 1 clinical trial that led to reduced mortality and marked improvements in oxygenation. Here we report a series of three patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure who were treated with tissue plasminogen activator. All three patients had a temporally related improvement in their respiratory status, with one of them being a durable response.

Keywords: COVID-19; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); case report; fibrinolysis; tissue plasminogen activator (tPA).

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Betacoronavirus / pathogenicity*
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / blood
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / diagnosis
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / virology
  • Coronavirus Infections / blood
  • Coronavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Coronavirus Infections / virology
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Female
  • Fibrinolysis / drug effects*
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / adverse effects
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / blood
  • Pneumonia, Viral / diagnosis
  • Pneumonia, Viral / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / virology
  • Recovery of Function
  • Thrombolytic Therapy* / adverse effects
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator / administration & dosage*
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2