Food Sources and Nutrient Intakes of Filipino Working Adults

Nutrients. 2020 Apr 6;12(4):1009. doi: 10.3390/nu12041009.

Abstract

Nutrition is an integral part of economic development, since it influences workers' healthand productivity. This study evaluated the usual nutrient intakes and food sources of workingadults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey that involved 1264 selected working adults aged 19to 59 years old from randomly selected job sectors. Quantitative dietary data was collected by a 2-day, non-consecutive 24 h recall, while a dietary diversity questionnaire was used to assess the typesand frequency of foods consumed. Physical activity was measured using the World HealthOrganization global physical assessment questionnaire. The prevalence of inadequate intakes,defined as the percentage of adults with intakes less than the estimated average requirements (EAR)or acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR) were estimated using the PC-Softwarefor Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) program. The mean daily energy intake of workingadults was 1768 kcal/day or 74% of the Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) for this age group.The percentage contribution to the total energy of fats (58%) and proteins (34%) were excessivelyhigh. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was only 30% and 40% of the recommended nutrientintake, respectively. Salt intake was 52% above the adequate intake. Nutrient inadequacy was highin almost all nutrients, including iron (99%), folate (97.9%), riboflavin (95.8%), calcium (94.7%),vitamin C (87.3%), and thiamin (76.6%). The top five food sources of energy included rice (35.6%),pork (15.1%), fats and oils (4.7%), chicken (4.4%), and bread (3.8%). Energy and nutrient intakes ofworking adults is extremely sub-optimal due to the consumption of few nutrient-dense foods. Thismay pose a triple burden of malnutrition if left unsolved.

Keywords: working adults, usual energy intake, nutrient intake, food sources.