Objective: To report the theoretical basis and design of a novel digital Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention for people with chronic pain, the Pain Tracker Self Manager (PTSM), which had promising efficacy in a recent pilot trial.
Methods: Content development by a multidisciplinary panel of experts in psychiatry, clinical psychology, nursing and social work, with feedback from a group of patients with chronic pain and their providers. Materials included paper-based sketching of a story character, visual metaphors, and a series of stories designed to deliver the theory-based components of our behavioral intervention.
Results: This development and design process resulted in 4 digitally delivered clinical modules that combine visual and verbal cues. In addition, it generated a series of novel ACT metaphors specifically tailored to patients with chronic pain: Pain: Injury vs. Threat, Life Navigation System, The Fog of Pain, and Get Rhythm. Consistent with ACT theory and the contextual behavioral science framework, PTSM utilized: perspective-taking, values clarification, acceptance strategies, and nursing and psychological care recommendations.
Discussion: Reports of the design and theoretical basis of digital health interventions are highly needed to increase the rigor of their development process and more progressively advance our body of knowledge. This pilot study developed and tested a series of ACT metaphors that can be readily used by ACT clinicians working with this population.
Conclusion: PTSM is a novel digital ACT intervention for patients with chronic pain with features directly linked to ACT processes and theory.
Keywords: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Chronic Pain; Health Coaching; Pain Psychology; digital health.