Brain metastases occur in up to 25-55% of patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. Standard treatment has high rates of recurrence or progression, limiting survival and quality of life in most patients. Temozolomide (TMZ) is known to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and is US FDA approved for treatment of glioblastoma. Our group has demonstrated that low doses of TMZ administered in a prophylactic, metronomic fashion can significantly prevent development of brain metastases in murine models of breast cancer. Based on these findings, we initiated a secondary-prevention clinical trial with oral TMZ given to HER2-positive breast cancer patients with brain metastases after recent local treatment in combination with T-DM1 for systemic control of disease. Primary end point is freedom from new brain metastases at 1 year. (NCT03190967).
Keywords: T-DM1; brain metastases; metastatic breast cancer; secondary prevention; temozolomide.