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. 2020 Apr 7;9(4):463.
doi: 10.3390/plants9040463.

The Use of Urea and Kelp Waste Extract Is A Promising Strategy for Maximizing the Biomass Productivity and Lipid Content in Chlorella sorokiniana

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Free PMC article

The Use of Urea and Kelp Waste Extract Is A Promising Strategy for Maximizing the Biomass Productivity and Lipid Content in Chlorella sorokiniana

Ali Nawaz Kumbhar et al. Plants (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The decline in fossil fuel reserves has forced researchers to seek out alternatives to fossil fuels. Microalgae are considered to be a promising feedstock for sustainable biofuel production. Previous studies have shown that urea is an important nitrogen source for cell growth and the lipid production of microalgae. The present study investigated the effect of different concentrations of urea combined with kelp waste extract on the biomass and lipid content of Chlorella sorokiniana. The results revealed that the highest cell density, 20.36 × 107 cells-1, and maximal dry biomass, 1.70 g/L, were achieved in the presence of 0.5 g/L of urea combined with 8% kelp waste extract. Similarly, the maximum chlorophyll a, b and beta carotenoid were 10.36 mg/L, 7.05, and 3.01 mg/L, respectively. The highest quantity of carbohydrate content, 290.51 µg/mL, was achieved in the presence of 0.2 g/L of urea and 8% kelp waste extract. The highest fluorescence intensity, 40.05 × 107 cells-1, and maximum total lipid content (30%) were achieved in the presence of 0.1 g/L of urea and 8% kelp waste extract. The current study suggests that the combination of urea and kelp waste extract is the best strategy to enhance the biomass and lipid content in Chlorella sorokiniana.

Keywords: Chlorella sorokiniana; biofuel; biomass; kelp waste extracts; lipid; urea.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Effect of different concentrations of urea combined with kelp waste extract (KWE) on the cell density of C. sorokiniana. The bar charts represent the means ± SD of triplicate samples (n = 3). Different alphabets letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between the urea concentrations.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Content in chlorophyll (a) and (b) and carotenoids in (c). C. sorokiniana grown under the different concentrations of urea combined with 8% KWE. The bar charts represent the means ± SD of triplicate samples (n = 3). Different alphabets letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between the urea concentrations.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Carbohydrate content of C. sorokiniana during the cultivation in different concentration of urea combined with KWE. The bar charts represent the means ± SD of triplicate samples (n = 3). Different alphabets letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between the urea concentrations.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Nile red fluorescence intensity of C. sorokiniana (expressed as 107 cells mL−1) under different concentrations of urea combined with KWE. The bar charts represent the means ± SD of triplicate samples (n = 3). Different alphabets letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between the urea concentrations.
Figure 5
Figure 5
(a) Biomass and (b) lipid content of C. sorokiniana under different concentrations of urea combined with KWE. The bar charts represent means ± SD of triplicate samples (n = 3). Different alphabets letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between urea concentrations and control.

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