Self-Calibration for the Time Difference of Arrival Positioning

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Apr 7;20(7):2079. doi: 10.3390/s20072079.


The time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) self-calibration is an important topic for many applications, such as indoor navigation. One of the most common methods is to perform nonlinear optimization. Unfortunately, optimization often gets stuck in a local minimum. Here, we propose a method of dimension lifting by adding an additional variable into the l 2 norm of the objective function. Next to the usual numerical optimization, a partially-analytical method is suggested, which overdetermines the system of equations proportionally to the number of measurements. The effect of dimension lifting on the TDOA self-calibration is verified by experiments with synthetic and real measurements. In both cases, self-calibration is performed for two very common and often combined localization systems, the DecaWave Ultra-Wideband (UWB) and the Abatec Local Position Measurement (LPM) system. The results show that our approach significantly reduces the risk of becoming trapped in a local minimum.

Keywords: dimension lifting; self-calibration; time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA).