Aedes-transmitted diseases, especially dengue, are increasing throughout the world and the main preventive methods include vector control and the avoidance of mosquito bites. A simple Premise Condition Index (PCI) categorizing shade, house, and yard conditions was previously developed to help prioritize households or geographical areas where resources are limited. However, evidence about the accuracy of the PCI is mixed. The current study aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the relevance by collecting data from 2,400 premises at four time points over 1 year in Kampong Cham, Cambodia. Regression models were then used to identify associations between PCI and Aedes adult female mosquitoes and pupae. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to measure the ability of PCI to identify premises in the top quartile of mosquito abundance. The density of adult Aedes females was positively associated with PCI at the household (ratio of means = 1.16 per point on the PCI scale) and cluster level (ratio of means = 1.54). However, the number of Aedes pupae was negatively associated with PCI at the household level (rate ratio = 0.74) and did not have a statistically significant association at the cluster level. Receiver operating characteristic curves suggest the PCI score had "rather low accuracy" (area under the ROC curve = 0.52 and 0.54) at identifying top-quartile premises in terms of adult female Aedes and pupae, respectively. These results suggest that caution is warranted in the programmatic use of PCI in areas of similar geography and mosquito abundance.