Importance: Glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in high-risk conditions, but its significance in low-risk individuals is uncertain.
Objective: To determine whether glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals.
Design, setting, and participants: This was a prospective population-based cohort study, for which enrollment took place from August 2009 to October 2010, with follow-up available through March 31, 2016. Analysis of the data took place in October 2019. The cohort was composed of 9515 healthy individuals, defined as individuals without hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or statin and/or aspirin use, identified among 20 004 patients aged 40 to 69 years with health information accessed through the CARTaGENE research platform.
Exposures: Individuals with glomerular hyperfiltration (eGFR >95th percentile after stratification for sex and age) were compared with individuals with normal filtration rate (eGFR 25th-75th percentiles).
Main outcomes and measures: Adverse cardiovascular events were defined as a composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, heart failure, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Risk of adverse cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox and fractional polynomial regressions and propensity score matching.
Results: From the 20 004 CARTaGENE participants, 9515 healthy participants (4050 [42.6%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 50.4 [45.9-55.6] years) were identified. Among these, 473 had glomerular hyperfiltration (median [interquartile range] eGFR, 112 [107-115] mL/min/1.73 m2) and 4761 had a normal filtration rate (median [interquartile range] eGFR, 92 [87-97] mL/min/1.73 m2). Compared with the normal filtration rate, glomerular hyperfiltration was associated with an increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.30-2.74; P = .001). Findings were similar with propensity score matching. The fractional polynomial regression showed that only the highest eGFR percentiles were associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular risk of individuals with glomerular hyperfiltration was similar to that of the 597 participants with an eGFR between 45 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56-1.42; P = .64).
Conclusions and relevance: These findings suggest that glomerular hyperfiltration is independently associated with increased cardiovascular risk in middle-aged healthy individuals. This risk profile appears to be similar to stage 3a chronic kidney disease.