Consumption of Non-Nutritive Sweeteners During Pregnancy

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Apr 8;S0002-9378(20)30385-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.03.034. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

In an effort to reduce sugar consumption to prevent diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, "sugar-free" or "no added sugar" products that substitute sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) (eg, Splenda, Sweet'N Low, and Stevia) have become increasingly popular. The use of these products during pregnancy has also increased, with approximately 30% of pregnant women reporting intentional NNS consumption. In clinical studies with nonpregnant participants and animal models, NNSs were shown to alter gut hormonal secretion, glucose absorption, appetite, kidney function, in vitro insulin secretion, adipogenesis, and microbiome dysbiosis of gut bacteria. In pregnant animal models, NNS consumption has been associated with altered sweet taste preference later in life and metabolic dysregulations in the offspring (eg, elevated body mass index, increased risk of obesity, microbiome dysbiosis, and abnormal liver function tests). Despite the accumulating evidence, no specific guidelines for NNS consumption are available for pregnant women. Furthermore, there are limited clinical studies on the effects of NNS consumption during pregnancy and postpartum and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

Keywords: acesulfame K; aspartame; non-nutritive sweeteners; pregnancy; saccharin; stevia; sucralose.