Control of 24-hour blood pressure with SGLT2 inhibitors to prevent cardiovascular disease

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. May-Jun 2020;63(3):249-262. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2020.04.003. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Abstract

The presence of hypertension (HTN) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) further worsens cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognosis. In addition, masked HTN and abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) variability are common among patients with DM. Clinical trial data show that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve CVD prognosis and prevent progression of renal dysfunction in high-risk patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). Consistent reductions in 24-hour, daytime and nocturnal BP have been documented during treatment with SGLT2i in patients with DM and HTN, and these reductions are of a magnitude that is likely to be clinically significant. SGLT2i agents also appear to have beneficial effects on morning, evening and nocturnal home BP. Greater reductions in BP during treatment with SGLT2i have been reported in patient subgroups with higher body mass index, and in those with higher baseline BP. Other documented beneficial effects of SGLT2i include reductions in arterial stiffness and the potential to decrease the apnea-hypopnea index in patients with DM and obstructive sleep apnea. Recent guidelines highlight the important role of SGLT2i as part of the pharmacological management of patients with DM and HTN, and recommend consideration of SGLT2i early in the clinical course to reduce all-cause and CVD mortality in patients with T2DM and CVD. Overall, available data support a role for SGLT2i as effective BP-lowering agents in patients with T2DM and poorly controlled HTN, irrespective of baseline glucose control status. Sustained improvements in 24-hour BP and the 24-hour BP profile are likely to contribute to the CVD benefits of SGLT2i treatment.

Keywords: 24-hour blood pressure; Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; Cardiovascular risk; Diabetes; Hypertension; Sodium glucose cotransport 2 inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
  • Circadian Rhythm / drug effects*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / mortality
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / mortality
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Protective Factors
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors