1. Substrate selectivity and species difference in the oxidative deamination of the alicyclic primary amines, cyclopentylamine, cyclohexylamine, cycloheptylamine, 1- and 2-aminoindane, and 1- and 2-aminotetralin were studied using liver microsomes from rats and rabbits. 2. The deamination rates of the amines were much greater with liver microsomes from rabbits than from rats. Substrate selectivity resulted in much faster deamination of 1-aminoindane and 1-aminotetralin than of the corresponding 2-amino compounds, especially in rats. 3. When 1-aminoindane and 1-aminotetralin were incubated with rat liver microsomes and NADPH under 18O2, oxygen-18 was incorporated into the deaminated products, 1-indanone and 1-tetralone. The carbinolamine is a key intermediate in the oxidative deamination by rat liver microsomes, indicating the contribution of cytochrome P-450-dependent alpha-C-oxidation to the reaction. 4. Alicyclic primary amines gave type II binding spectra with rat and rabbit liver microsomes, but the spectra appeared to contain type I components. 5. The ratios of the alcohols, cyclohexanol, 2-tetralol and 2-indanol in the deaminated products were high in both rats and rabbits. The ketones were precursors of the alcohols, and substrate selectivity in reduction of the alicyclic ketones with NADPH was similar in both species.