Objective: Few studies have attempted to identify how distinct dimensions of maternal prenatal affective symptoms relate to offspring psychopathology. We defined latent dimensions of women's prenatal affective symptoms and pregnancy-specific worries to examine their association with early offspring psychopathology in three prenatal cohorts.
Method: Data were used from three cohorts of the DREAM-BIG consortium: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC [N = 12,515]), Generation R (N = 6,803), and the Canadian prenatal cohort Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN [N = 578]). Maternal prenatal affective symptoms and pregnancy-specific worries were assessed using different measures in each cohort. Through confirmatory factor analyses, we determined whether comparable latent dimensions of prenatal maternal affective symptoms existed across the cohorts. We used structural equation models to examine cohort-specific associations between these dimensions and offspring psychopathology at 4 to 8 years of age (general psychopathology, specific internalizing and externalizing previously derived using confirmatory factor analyses). Cohort-based estimates were meta-analyzed using inverse variance-weighing.
Results: Four prenatal maternal factors were similar in all cohorts: a general affective symptoms factor and three specific factors-an anxiety/depression factor, a somatic factor, and a pregnancy-specific worries factor. In meta-analyses, both the general affective symptoms factor and pregnancy-specific worries factor were independently associated with offspring general psychopathology. The general affective symptoms factor was further associated with offspring specific internalizing problems. There were no associations with specific externalizing problems.
Conclusion: These replicated findings of independent and adverse effects for prenatal general affective symptoms and pregnancy-specific worries on child mental health support the need for specific interventions in pregnancy.
Keywords: child externalizing; child internalizing; p factor; pregnancy anxiety; prenatal depression.
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