Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ligation Association with Infant Mortality

J Surg Res. 2020 Aug;252:192-199. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.03.011. Epub 2020 Apr 9.


Background: Practice patterns for the management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants are changing with advances in medical management. We sought to determine the increased mortality for premature infants who had a PDA ligation with a co-existing diagnosis of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH).

Methods: Premature neonates (<1 y old with known gestational week ≤36 wk) with a diagnosis of IVH were identified within the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 2006, 2009, and 2012. Diagnoses and procedures were analyzed by ICD-9 codes and stratified by a diagnosis of PDA and procedure of ligation. Case weighting was used to make national estimations. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for confounders.

Results: We identified 7567 hospitalizations for premature neonates undergoing PDA ligation. The population was predominately male (51.6%), non-Hispanic white (41.1%), were from the lowest income quartile (33.1%), had a gestational week of 25-26 wk (34.0%), and a birthweight between 500 and 749 g (37.3%). There was an increased mortality (10.7% versus 6.3%, P < 0.01) and an increased length of stay (88.2 d versus 74.4 d, P < 0.01) in those with any diagnosis of IVH compared with those without. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that high-grade IVH (III or IV) was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality in those undergoing PDA ligation (aOR 2.59, P < 0.01). Specifically, grade III and IV were associated with an increased odds of in-hospital mortality (aOR 1.99 and 3.16, respectively, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Attitudes regarding the need for surgical intervention for PDA have shifted in recent years. This study highlights that premature neonates with grade III or IV IVH are at significantly increased risk of mortality if undergoing PDA ligation during the same hospitalization.

Level of evidence: III.

Keywords: Cardiac surgery; Ductus arteriosus; Intraventricular hemorrhage.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Cerebral Intraventricular Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / mortality*
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / surgery
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Mortality*
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Ligation / adverse effects
  • Male
  • Perioperative Period
  • Retrospective Studies
  • United States / epidemiology