Optimizing autologous bone contribution to implant osseointegration

J Periodontol. 2020 Apr 11. doi: 10.1002/JPER.19-0524. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Autologous bone can be harvested from the flutes of a conventional drill or from a bone scraper; here we compared whether autologous bone chips generated by a new slow-speed instrument were more osteogenic than the bone chips generated by conventional drills or bone scrapers. Additionally, we tested whether the osteogenic potential of bone chips could be further improved by exposure to a Wnt signaling (WNT) therapeutic.

Methods: Osteotomies were prepared in fresh rat maxillary first molar extraction sockets using a conventional drill or a new osseo-shaping instrument; titanium alloy implants were placed immediately thereafter. Using molecular/cellular and histologic analyses, the fates of the resulting bone chips were analyzed. To test whether increasing WNT signaling improved osteogenesis in an immediate post-extraction implant environment, a WNT therapeutic was introduced at the time of implant placement.

Results: Bone collected from a conventional drill exhibited extensive apoptosis; in contrast, bone generated by the new instrument remained in situ, which preserved their viability. Also preserved was the viability of the osteoprogenitor cells attached to the bone chips. Exogenous treatment with a WNT therapeutic increased the rate of osteogenesis around immediate post-extraction implants.

Conclusions: Compared with conventional drills or bone scrapers, a new cutting instrument enabled concomitant site preparation with autologous bone chip collection. Histology/histomorphometric analyses revealed that the bone chips generated by this new tool were more osteogenic and could be further enhanced by exposure to a WNT therapeutic. Even though gaps still existed in placebo controls and liposomal WNT3A (L-WNT3A) cases, the area of peri-implant bone was significantly greater in L-WNT3A treated sites.

Keywords: autograft; bone; grafting; osteogenesis; osteotomy; regeneration; wnt proteins.