Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia

Neurol Clin. 2020 May;38(2):379-396. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2020.01.004. Epub 2020 Feb 28.


Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an iatrogenic condition that encompasses a wide phenomenological spectrum of movement disorders caused by exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs). TD may cause troublesome or disabling symptoms that impair quality of life. Due to frequent, often inappropriate, use of DRBAs, TD prevalence rates among patients exposed to DRBAs continue to be high. The judicious use of DRBAs is key to the prevention of TD, reduction of disease burden, and achieving lasting remission. Dopamine-depleting vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 inhibitors are considered the treatment of choice of TD.

Keywords: Deutetrabenazine; Tardive dyskinesia; Tardive syndrome; VMAT2 inhibitors; Valbenazine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Botulinum Toxins / therapeutic use
  • Deep Brain Stimulation / methods
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • Humans
  • Muscarinic Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Neuromuscular Agents / therapeutic use
  • Tardive Dyskinesia / therapy*
  • Tetrabenazine / analogs & derivatives
  • Tetrabenazine / therapeutic use
  • Trihexyphenidyl / therapeutic use
  • Valine / analogs & derivatives
  • Valine / therapeutic use
  • Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Neuromuscular Agents
  • SLC18A2 protein, human
  • Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins
  • valbenazine
  • Trihexyphenidyl
  • Botulinum Toxins
  • Valine
  • deutetrabenazine
  • Tetrabenazine