Background: Given that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is produced and released at synapses, synaptic Aβ is one of the promising therapeutic targets to prevent synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although Aβ production begins with the cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), the mechanism on how BACE1 is involved in AβPP processing at synapses remains unclear.
Objective: This study aimed to identify novel BACE1 interacting proteins regulating Aβ production at the synapse.
Methods: BACE1 interacting proteins were pulled down using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics of wild-type (WT) rat brain synaptoneurosome lysates utilizing anti-BACE1 antibody. Then, a novel BACE1 interactor was identified and characterized using experimental systems that utilized transfected cells and knockout (KO) mice.
Results: Synaptic vesicle protein 2B (SV2B) was identified as a novel presynaptic interaction partner of BACE1. In HEK293 cells, co-overexpression of SV2B with BACE1 significantly reduced the sAβPPβ and Aβ levels released in the media; thus, SV2B overexpression negatively affected the AβPP cleavage by BACE1. Compared with those of WT mice, the hippocampal lysates of SV2B knockout mice had significantly elevated Aβ levels, whereas the β-secretase activity and the AβPP and BACE1 protein levels remained unchanged. Finally, a fractionation assay revealed that BACE1 was mislocalized in SV2B KO mice; hence, SV2B may be involved in BACE1 trafficking downregulating the amyloidogenic pathway of AβPP.
Conclusion: SV2B has a novel role of negatively regulating the amyloidogenic processing of AβPP at the presynapses.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; BACE1; SV2B; amyloid-β; synapse.