The Imperative for Transgender and Gender Nonbinary Inclusion: Beyond Women's Health

Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;135(5):1059-1068. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003816.


We aim to make evident that solely referencing cisgender women in the context of sexual and reproductive health-particularly pregnancy planning and care-excludes a diverse group of transgender and gender nonbinary people who have sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences that can be similar to but also unique from those of cisgender women. We call on clinicians and researchers to ensure that all points of sexual and reproductive health access, research, sources of information, and care delivery comprehensively include and are accessible to people of all genders. We describe barriers to sexual and reproductive health care and research participation unique to people of marginalized gender identities, provide examples of harm resulting from these barriers, and offer concrete suggestions for creating inclusive, accurate, and respectful care and research environments-which will lead to higher quality health care and science for people of all genders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Delivery of Health Care / methods
  • Delivery of Health Care / standards*
  • Female
  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Health Services for Transgender Persons / standards*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Reproductive Health / standards
  • Reproductive Health Services / standards*
  • Transgender Persons
  • Women's Health / standards*