Objectives: To describe the prevalence, clinical features and complications of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections in a population of adults hospitalized with influenza-like illness (ILI).
Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter cohort study using prospectively collected data from adult patients hospitalized during influenza virus circulation, for at least 24 h, for community-acquired ILI (with symptom onset <7 days). Data were collected from five French teaching hospitals over six consecutive winters (2012-2018). Respiratory viruses were identified by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal specimens. hMPV + patients were compared with hMPV- patients, influenza+ and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)+ patients using multivariate logistic regressions. Primary outcome was the prevalence of hMPV in patients hospitalized for ILI.
Results: Among the 3148 patients included (1449 (46%) women, 1988 (63%) aged 65 and over; 2508 (80%) with chronic disease), at least one respiratory virus was detected in 1604 (51%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 49-53), including 100 cases of hMPV (100/3148, 3% 95% CI 3-4), of which 10 (10%) were viral co-infection. In the hMPV + patients, mean length of stay was 7 days, 62% (56/90) developed a complication, 21% (14/68) were admitted to intensive care unit and 4% (4/90) died during hospitalization. In comparison with influenza + patients, hMPV + patients were more frequently >65 years old (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.3, 95% CI 1.9-6.3) and presented more acute heart failure during hospitalization (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-2.9). Compared with RSV + patients, hMPV + patients had less cancer (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) and were less likely to smoke (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) but had similar outcomes, especially high rates of respiratory and cardiovascular complications.
Conclusions: Adult hMPV infections mainly affect the elderly and patients with chronic conditions and are responsible for frequent cardiac and pulmonary complications similar to those of RSV infections. At-risk populations would benefit from the development of antivirals and vaccines targeting hMPV.
Keywords: Adults; Human metapneumovirus; Influenza; Influenza-like-illness; Respiratory syncytial virus.
Copyright © 2020 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.