Appropriate delivery method for cardiac disease pregnancy based on noninvasive cardiac monitoring

J Perinat Med. 2020 Apr 9:/j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2019-0348/jpm-2019-0348.xml. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2019-0348. Online ahead of print.


Background There are numerous significant physiological changes occurring in circulation during labor. To detect these rapid hemodynamic changes, invasive and intermittent measurement techniques are not reliable. To suggest a suitable delivery method for pregnancy with cardiac disease, this study analyzed how each delivery method influences cardiac function using a noninvasive and continuous measurement technique. Methods A prospective study was accomplished at the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center in Japan from October 1, 2014, to November 30, 2018. The classification of the healthy heart pregnant women was according to the delivery method: vaginal delivery (VD) without epidural anesthesia, VD with epidural anesthesia, and caesarean section (CS). The hemodynamic parameters cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SI), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated regularly throughout delivery by noninvasive electrical cardiometry monitor. Results Ten cases were examined for each group. CI and HR were significantly increased before VD, while the increase in CI and HR was mild in the epidural group in comparison to the nonepidural group. SI was increased toward the delivery in the epidural group, and it was constant in the nonepidural group. However, there was no alteration in the level of outcomes of the two groups. In CS, SI increased and HR decreased before delivery. After delivery, SI continued to increase, while HR did not change but CI increased. Conclusion In VD, the increase in venous circulation according to the autotransfusion is managed by increasing HR. By epidural anesthesia, the increase in HR was suppressed and SI was increased. However, as epidural anesthesia increases the vascular capacity, the level of SI outcome was comparable. In CS, the HR was decreased because of the spinal anesthesia and the SI was increased because of many factors like hydration. As there are many factors to control in CS, VD with epidural anesthesia will be the first preference for most cardiac patients.

Keywords: cardiac disease; cardiac output; delivery method; noninvasive cardiac monitoring.