Characterizing Emerging Canine H3 Influenza Viruses

PLoS Pathog. 2020 Apr 14;16(4):e1008409. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008409. eCollection 2020 Apr.


The continual emergence of novel influenza A strains from non-human hosts requires constant vigilance and the need for ongoing research to identify strains that may pose a human public health risk. Since 1999, canine H3 influenza A viruses (CIVs) have caused many thousands or millions of respiratory infections in dogs in the United States. While no human infections with CIVs have been reported to date, these viruses could pose a zoonotic risk. In these studies, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) network collaboratively demonstrated that CIVs replicated in some primary human cells and transmitted effectively in mammalian models. While people born after 1970 had little or no pre-existing humoral immunity against CIVs, the viruses were sensitive to existing antivirals and we identified a panel of H3 cross-reactive human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) that could have prophylactic and/or therapeutic value. Our data predict these CIVs posed a low risk to humans. Importantly, we showed that the CEIRS network could work together to provide basic research information important for characterizing emerging influenza viruses, although there were valuable lessons learned.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / transmission
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / veterinary*
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / virology
  • Dog Diseases / transmission
  • Dog Diseases / virology*
  • Dogs
  • Ferrets
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Humans
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / classification
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / genetics
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / isolation & purification*
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype / classification
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype / genetics
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype / isolation & purification*
  • Influenza A virus / classification
  • Influenza A virus / genetics
  • Influenza A virus / isolation & purification*
  • Influenza, Human / transmission
  • Influenza, Human / virology
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred DBA
  • United States
  • Zoonoses / transmission
  • Zoonoses / virology*