A fucoidan (LJSF4) purified from Saccharina japonica was found to show a strong anti-inflammatory effect via activity assay in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and zebrafish. Chemical and structural analysis indicated that LJSF4 with a sulfate content of 30.72% was composed of fucose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose and mannose with molar ratio percentages of 79.49%, 16.76%, 0.82%, 1.08% and 1.84%. NMR spectroscopy showed that LJSF4 is a polysaccharide with a backbone of alternating 1 → 3 linked α-l-fucopyranosyl and →4-α-l-fucopyranosyl with sulfate groups mainly at C-4 and partially at C-2 positions. Moreover, it also contained branches in the form of β-d-Galp-(1 → 4) units. The results of anti-inflammatory effect in vitro demonstrated that LJSF4 decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. The mechanism revealed to be associated with the down-regulated expression of signal pathways including MAPK and NF-κB. By in vivo assay, LJSF4 showed a significantly protective effect by reducing the cell death rate, and the production of NO and ROS on LPS exposed zebrafish. Our results indicated that LJSF4 has the potential to be developed as an anti-inflammatory agent applied in functional food and cosmetic industries.
Keywords: Anti-inflammation; Fucoidan; RAW 264.7; Saccharina japonica; Structure; Zebrafish.
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