Herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the best-documented extracellular vesicle (EVs)-incorporated viral proteins. Regarding the sequence and structure conservation between gB homologs, we asked whether bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV)-encoded gB share the property of herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) gB to be trafficked to EVs and affect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our data highlight some conserved and differential features of the three gBs. We demonstrate that mature, fully processed BoHV-1 and PRV gBs localize to EVs isolated from constructed stable cell lines and EVs-enriched fractions from virus-infected cells. gB also shares the ability to co-localize with CD63 and MHC II in late endosomes. However, we report here a differential effect of the HSV-1, BoHV-1, and PRV glycoprotein on the surface MHC II levels, and MHC II loading to EVs in stable cell lines, which may result from their adverse ability to bind HLA-DR, with PRV gB being the most divergent. BoHV-1 and HSV-1 gB could retard HLA-DR exports to the plasma membrane. Our results confirm that the differential effect of gB on MHC II may require various mechanisms, either dependent on its complex formation or on inducing general alterations to the vesicular transport. EVs from virus-infected cells also contained other viral glycoproteins, like gD or gE, and they were enriched in MHC II. As shown for BoHV-1 gB- or BoHV-1-infected cell-derived vesicles, those EVs could bind anti-virus antibodies in ELISA, which supports the immunoregulatory potential of alphaherpesvirus gB.
Keywords: CD63; MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II; alphaherpesvirus; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; glycoprotein B.